Periods of Pregnancy and Common Problems


1st trimester (first 12 weeks)
2nd trimester (weeks 12-24)
3rd trimester (between 24-40 weeks).


  • Fatigue, weakness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Frequent urination
  • Breast Tenderness
  • Headache and feeling unwell
  • Slight weight gain
  • Spot bleeding (spotting).
  • Groin pain
  • Tendency to sleep, psychological changes in mood

The first trimester is a period when there are important changes in our body and adaptation to pregnancy takes place. While the person is experiencing the first excitement of pregnancy in this period, he may face some problems.


"When will my nausea end?"
Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy; Many causes, such as hormones secreted from the placenta, psychological problems of the mother, vitamin B6 deficiency, changes in the gastrointestinal tract due to pregnancy, and thyroid gland working more than normal.

During pregnancy, the stomach and intestines discharge more slowly under the influence of pregnancy hormones. There may be complaints of indigestion, bloating and gas related to this. Patients with ulcers in their stomachs before pregnancy may be more resistant and long-lasting. Also, nausea and vomiting may increase due to stress and fatigue.

Nausea and vomiting are more common in the morning, but you can appear at any time of the day. It is generally more severe in the first pregnancies, young women and twin pregnancies.

Nausea often begins at 4 to 8 weeks of age and decreases at 14 to 16 weeks. However, in some women, nausea and vomiting may start after the 3rd month and in some women, it may continue throughout the pregnancy. In such cases, if the problem persists despite oral medications, serum feeding may be required.


Eating more frequently and in the form of small meals during the day reduces your nausea. Drinking little fluid during meals also helps healing. The purpose of doing these is to avoid keeping the stomach completely empty or completely full. Because both conditions can increase nausea.

Turn to solid, dry, lean and salty foods as a dietary diet. If you don't have nausea when you eat dessert or fruit, you can also eat them.

If you have a lot of nausea when you first get up, drink a tea without brewing before getting out of bed. Have dry things such as breadcrumbs and pretzels at the bedside.

Do not get out of bed suddenly in the morning. Frequent fatigue in the early stages of pregnancy can also aggravate nausea.

Avoid unpleasant odors and food. Especially stay away from kitchen odors and heavy perfumes.

If your nausea does not pass despite all precautions, contact your doctor. You may need medication or hospitalization for a while.

“I feel more nervous, tense and touchy”

Some psychological changes may occur in the expectant mother in the first 3 months of pregnancy. For example, when the person is very cheerful, he can be suddenly crying. Sometimes it can be calm some days when you are very angry. Complaints such as depression, excessive irritability, excessive sleepiness during pregnancy are common. The first 3 months of pregnancy is the adaptation period to pregnancy and these problems will gradually disappear as one adapts to pregnancy. Again, some unrest may appear in the last weeks of pregnancy. The sources of these unrest are concerns about childbirth, anxieties of being a mother after birth, pending material and moral obligations. The person may be nervous, excited, sleep problems may occur.


All these complaints are temporary and should not be worried too much. Almost every woman experiences these feelings. Similarly, they may face a number of troubles in the candidate father. She may have worries about her husband's condition and feel sorry for not being able to help her if she is unfamiliar with the issue. Therefore, couples can benefit from their experiences by talking to their friends who had such an experience before them. However, it should not be forgotten that the most professional help can be obtained from the specialist physicians.

“I constantly urinate”

With the growing volume of the uterus in the first three months, changes in the functions of the kidneys give you the feeling of needing to urinate. You can even miss urine while sneezing, coughing and laughing. The reason for this is the pressure of the growing uterus on the bladder.

Although urinary complaints ease after 4 months, it will generally increase again as a result of the baby's head pressing on the bladder in the last months.


To cope with constant urination problems; It is recommended to stop drinking water a few hours before bedtime. So you get up less during the night and your sleep won't break. However, it is definitely not recommended to reduce fluid intake throughout the pregnancy. Because drinking plenty of water has many positive effects on pregnancy.

Urine whenever you need it. Keeping your urine can lead to urinary tract infection as a result of your bladder not emptying completely. Bending forward while urinating helps your bladder to empty completely. If you suffer from frequent urination (pollacuria) and urinary pain with burning and whining (dysuria) while urinating, this may be due to "urinary tract infection", consult your physician.

“My breasts are whining”

Increased secretion of hormones called estrogen, prolactin and progesterone is the main cause of changes in the breasts of the pregnant woman. You may feel slight changes in your breasts during the first few weeks of pregnancy, they may be painful.


In this case, wearing a bra while lying down to avoid stimulating the breasts and avoiding contact with the nipples will reduce such complaints to some extent.

“I have a headache and I am very sluggish”

Headaches in early pregnancy disturb many women. The exact cause is unclear, but like other conditions seen early in pregnancy, changes in hormone levels and blood circulation and psychological causes are blamed. Other possible causes of headache are excessive stress and fatigue.

These behavioral changes can also cause you headaches for a few days if you reduce caffeine or cut it off as soon as you learn that you are pregnant.

Feeling unwell is common in pregnant women and may be the result of circulatory changes during pregnancy.
Headaches that develop after the 6th month of pregnancy may not be as innocent as in the first months. In headaches during these periods, it is recommended that blood pressure is measured and checked first. Because "pregnancy-related hypertension" and "preeclampsia (pregnancy poisoning)" are the causes of headache that threatens maternal and infant health in these periods.

Stress, fatigue and hunger can also be the cause of feeling unwell and fainting (syncope attacks).


Pregnancy headaches can be relieved by applying hot compresses to the face and sides of the face, around the nose and eyes.

Also, relaxation exercises make you feel very good as well as reducing your headache. Do these exercises by closing your eyes and thinking calmly.

Good and balanced nutrition, good rest, massage, light exercise or walks will also significantly reduce your complaints.
It is very easy to say, but reducing the stress in your life will allow you to spend the first stages of your pregnancy and the rest easily.

Be sure to consult your doctor before using pain medication.

"How much weight should I gain?"

Although it is normal to take a total of 11-14 kg during pregnancy, only a small part of it occurs in the first three months (an average of 1 kg).

low-weight ladies can gain a little more weight, while overweight women are recommended to gain a little less weight.

All the important structures and organ systems of your baby are formed in the first trimester. In the next period, these grow and develop, and your baby gains weight.

At the end of the first three months, the baby is on average 8 cm. It looks like a miniature human with a height of 20 grams. Many organ systems have been formed and even started to work. There are tiny nails on the fingers and toes. Hands are the size of peas.

By making sucking movements, the baby swallows the fluid surrounding it and removes the fluid it swallows from below as urine.

Many women complain of symptoms that disturb themselves in the early stages of pregnancy. These are not usually problems to worry about, but you should know which symptoms are conditions to consult a doctor.

"I have bleeding in the spotting style, is it normal?"

Bleeding complaints that can be seen in all periods of pregnancy are important. Although mild bleeding in the first three months is generally due to its low threat and spontaneous complaints with 90% rest, you should “contact your doctor if you have any bleeding during pregnancy”.

Having bleeding may be the result of a problem with your pregnancy. In addition, this situation can create risky situations not only for your baby but also for your health.

“My groin hurts”

When you first conceive, you may experience pain in your groin, hip and waist. As the uterus grows, the connective tissues that hold it also stretch. The reason for the pain is this strain. Even though it's annoying, you don't have to worry.

A warm bath helps you relax and ease your pain. You can also relax with relaxation exercises. If your pain is unbearably severe, contact your doctor.


• Pain and burns
• Skin changes (pregnancy spots, skin rashes, pimples)
• constipation
• Anemia
• Leg cramps
• Weight gain
• Vaginal discharge and infections
• Craving

The second trimester is between the 13th week and the 27th week of pregnancy.
In this period, which is also known as the “golden period”, the side effects at the beginning of pregnancy decreased and the illnesses in the last three months have not started yet.
During this period, your nausea has decreased, your sleep has improved and your energy has been replaced. Also during this period, your baby started to feel like a real to you. You can feel the baby's movements between the 16th and 20th weeks.

Your stomach has started to appear gradually in 4 - 5 months. Changing your wardrobe, 14-16. It is time to make preparations at home for your baby, whose sex has become visible with ultrasound from weeks.


"When will I feel the baby movements?"

Ladies who have given birth show their experiences in this regard. While these ladies generally feel that the baby is playing around the 16th week, those who have their first pregnancy are 18-21. They meet this feeling between weeks.

Prospective mothers may liken the baby's playing movements to "a flap of a bird in them". Baby's playing is a peace and happiness event for the parents. The height of the baby in the 4th month is 15 cm, and its weight is about 150 grams.

At the end of the 6th month, the baby reaches 30 cm in height and 900 grams in weight. The baby has been in a fast pace of growth after this period and his weight will increase approximately three times until birth.

“I feel pain and burns in my stomach”

In the second trimester, you notice a rapid increase in the width of the uterus (uterus).

The female uterus is the only organ in our body that can go up to its own size and return to its former state after birth.

As the uterus grows, other organs in that part of your body will move away from their normal places. For this reason, there will be excessive tension in the muscle and connective tissues that hold these organs. This organ growth and stress can disturb the expectant mother.

The main cause of pain and burns during this period are pregnancy hormones with an increase in the weight and width of the uterus.

“Pain in my back”

During pregnancy, the joints between the bones in your hip area soften and relax. These are preparations for the baby to pass through this area during childbirth.

During this period, the weight of your uterus increases and the location of the center of gravity changes. As a result, your body shape and walking style changes over time, and perhaps without even realizing it. Changes in the center of gravity cause back pain.


To minimize your complaints, be careful to sit, get up and walk, do not strain yourself, avoid lifting a heavy load, and relax by lying down when your pain increases.

In addition, avoid wearing heels that negatively affect waist and back health. Always choose flat shoes and orthopedic sole shoes if possible.

Exercises to work out the muscles in your abdominal area will help reduce lower back and back pain.

"I have pains in my groin"

The cause of pain in the lower abdomen in the second period is the stretching of the expanding uterus muscles and the hanging connective tissue around the uterus. This condition is referred to as "Round ligament pain" in the medical literature.

Also, if you have previously had an operation on the abdomen, the pain may be due to the stretching of the internal adhesions here.

During pregnancy, sudden pain caused by appendicitis or gallstones (cholecystitis) can occur in different places and shapes. The reason why these pains occur in different places is that the growing uterus pushes these organs away from where they are located.


Although the pain in the groin area does not pose a threat to your baby and you, be sure to tell your doctor if your complaint is excessive and prolonged. Because the cause of these pains (in early gestational weeks) may be the risk of ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage and the onset of preterm delivery in advanced gestational weeks.
If your groin pain is severe, sitting or lying down or taking a hot shower can reduce your complaints to some extent.

“I have cramps on my legs”

Cramps in the legs are generally common after the 3rd month. It occurs especially at night and is sometimes even severe enough to wake up from sleep.

Although the exact cause of leg cramps is not clear, calcium and magnesium deficiency are generally blamed.


If leg cramps bother you very much, first, do stretching exercises for your hip muscles. Avoid sitting for a long time or walking for a long time. If suddenly cramps, stretch your knee and slightly raise your foot.
Massage, hot treatments to that area can be relaxing. Some physicians may be prescribed calcium, magnesium or B6 vitamins to patients.

"I get hearth-burns"

The most common cause of heartburn is the stomach content known as “reflux” back into the esophagus. As a result, stomach acids irritate the esophagus.

There are several reasons why reflux occurs more frequently than usual during pregnancy. The most important reason is that the growing uterus (uterus) pushes the stomach up.

Another reason is that the work of the digestive system slows down under the influence of hormones (especially the hormone progesterone), and the course of food that proceeds with wave movements in the esophagus slows down during pregnancy. Your stomach emptying is delayed and food is discharged more slowly than the digestive system. As a result, complaints such as indigestion, bloating and nausea may be seen.

In addition, the astringent muscle between the stomach and the esophagus is relaxed due to the increase of progesterone hormone during pregnancy, and the acid content of the stomach passes into the esophagus and can cause burns in the chest.


To prevent nausea and vomiting, eat little and often. Avoid excessively acidic foods and excessively bitter, sour, spicy, fatty foods. Avoid large amounts of tea, coffee and chocolate.

Prefer boiled foods rather than frying foods. Drinking soda can sometimes reduce your complaints.

Also, avoid movements and positions such as sudden forward bending, which increase your heartburn. You can even put another pillow under your head while lying at night and raise your head a little more.

After all, if you have a lot of heartburn, your doctor may give you some antacid medicines, but do not use drugs without consulting your doctor.

“My skin is not like before”

Some hormones secreted during pregnancy cause certain changes in your skin.

The most common problem is the skin becoming brownish and darkening, which becomes evident in some areas of the body. This condition most commonly occurs on the face (chloasma, pregnancy mask), nipples, abdomen, groin and around the navel.

Although the real cause of these blackening of the skin is unclear, it is thought to be due to the estrogen hormone, which is secreted during pregnancy.


Skin blackening during pregnancy can be further increased by exposure to sunlight or other ultraviolet lights. Therefore, do not stay in the sun in case of pregnancy and even when you are outdoors in summer, protect your face with creams with high protection factor. Note that environments with lots of snow also contain high doses of ultraviolet, like sunlight in the summer.

Although blackening of the skin decreases slightly after birth, it can be pale permanently. In this case, some treatments can be administered by dermatologists after birth.

In addition to browning of the skin during pregnancy, there may also be rashes on the hand and soles and some itchy and rashes on the body. Many complaints disappear spontaneously in the natural process of pregnancy without the need for treatment.


Constipation is a common problem seen during pregnancy, the most common cause is the slowing of the digestive system in general and the pressure of the growing uterus (uterus) on the last part of the intestines.

In addition, constipation increases the formation of hemorrhoids (hemorrhoids) and anal fissures (cracking in the rectum) in the late stages of pregnancy.


The most important way to deal with this problem is to regulate your diet. The most important treatment and constipation method is fiber-rich diet and plenty of fluid consumption.

There are benefits in getting plenty of all kinds of raw vegetables and fruits. You can also drink plenty of apricots, plums, fig compotes and natural juices for the intestines to work comfortably.

Drink a glass of warm water with your empty stomach before breakfast. Consumption of plenty of fluids provides many benefits in terms of maternal and infant health and normal course of pregnancy.

In addition, increasing your exercise can help reduce this problem. Especially outdoor one-hour walks are important for the health of yourself and your pregnancy. During this period, do not take laxative or similar effective drugs without consulting your doctor.

"Anemia complaint"

The increased needs of the baby during pregnancy increase the iron requirement of your body. You need 15 mg of iron daily before pregnancy. In pregnancy, it is necessary to double this. In general, additional iron pills are needed since iron taken with nutrients will not be sufficient.

Anemia (anemia) in pregnant women; fatigue, weakness, palpitations, chills, shortness of breath, dizziness and reduced body resistance.


The only treatment for anemia is taking iron. That's why 16-18 of pregnancy. From the week, every pregnant woman should take iron additionally.
It is also beneficial to consume iron-rich foods. Foods such as dried legumes, liver, spleen, heart, red meats, molasses and eggs are rich in iron.

“I have cravings”

In pregnancy, excessive cravings for foods such as pickles, lemon, banana, watermelon and onion are known as craving.

If these foods you desire do not cause any impairment in your digestive system and they are not excessively calorie, it is okay to eat the appropriate amount. It is not known why cravings originate.


• weakness, fatigue
• Flutter
• Shortness of breath
• Psychological problems, tension
• Abdominal, back, waist, groin pain
• Heartburn
• Leg cramps
• Insomnia
• Frequent urination and urinary incontinence problems
• Numbness in the toes and toes
• Varicose Veins
• Edema in the legs

The last three months are between 27 and 40 weeks of gestation when the complaints flare up again.
The reason for many of the complaints during this period is the volumetric growth of the uterus. It is also the period when the complaints of pregnancy increase and the risks associated with the baby are highest.

The general causes of psychological complaints and insomnia during this period are the anxiety and fears associated with childbirth, the material and moral obligations of being a mother and father after birth, and the discomfort felt due to the growth of pregnancy.


"I have Hemorrhoids"

Hemorrhoids are blood in the region as a result of enlargement of veins in the rectum. The reason for the frequent occurrence of hemorrhoids during pregnancy is the pressure created against the veins coming from the anal (makadi) region with the growth of the uterus.

Also, hormones during pregnancy, constipation and weight gain are among the causes. In many women, hemorrhoids appear for the first time in pregnancy, while in many, mild complaints beforehand become more pronounced. The most common problems are pain, bleeding, itching and discharge in the breech.


In order to be able to cope with hemorrhoid complaints during pregnancy, it is important to consume constipation, as well as eating plenty of water and fluids, as well as eating plenty of fiber, such as vegetables and fruits.

And also;

  • Clean the anal area very well after each toilet, use soft toilet paper.
  • You can make warm sitting baths for 20-30 minutes in the morning and evening.
  • Do not sit on hard chairs, especially for a long time.
  • Do not stand still for a long time, but you can walk.

If all your precautions do not go away, inform your doctor. Constipation treatment or local cream, suppository treatment can be applied to the breech area.

"My heirs increased"

Varicose veins may occur in the legs and genital area, especially in the late stages of pregnancy. The most important mechanism in the formation of varicose veins is the enlargement of the veins by beating the blood in the legs as a result of the growing uterus pressing the veins from the legs.

In addition, some pregnancy hormones increase this development. In addition to all these, genetic factors, obesity (obesity), professions that require long-term survival, smoking also lead to the formation of varicose veins.

The varicose veins can cause pain, edema (swelling) in pregnant women and even tend to infection.


What to do when varicose veins begin to occur; raising (elevation) by placing a pillow under the legs, wearing stockings with varicose veins and avoiding long-term, immobile standing.
Walking for an hour a day and resting the legs in light cold water for 15-20 minutes in the evening will also be helpful in eliminating complaints.

“Edema (swelling) on my legs increased”

As a result of the growing uterus pressing on the blood returned from the legs, edema seen in the last stages of pregnancy generally does not pose a serious problem.


In order to reduce recent edema, it is recommended not to stand still for a long time, not to overdo salt consumption and to put a pillow under the feet while resting.

The addition of swelling on the hands and face to edema may be a sign of preeclampsia. In this case, call your doctor.

“I'm missing urine”

The pressure exerted by the growing uterus and the baby's growing head in the uterus on the bladder may cause you to incontinence, especially in recent months.

This disturbing complaint may increase in situations such as laughing, sneezing, coughing, or lifting a heavy load. It usually disappears after birth.


Empty your urine bag every time you get stuck, so go to the toilet frequently, never leave urine inside. Urinary incontinence may also be due to urinary tract infection if it is accompanied by burning or inguinal pain while urinating. Inform your doctor.

Op. Sibel Malkoç, MD

Gynecology and Obstetrics Specialist

Dr. Sibel Malkoç attended many domestic and international training seminars and congresses during 25 years of specialised physician service.

Pregnancy follow-up, urinary incontinence surgery and laser treatments, genital aesthetic surgery and laser applications and vaginismus treatment are of special interest.

It serves its patients especially in surgical and laser-assisted Vagina aesthetics.

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